fake credit card and name vocational school

2022-05-09 fake

fake credit card and name vocational school

Vocational and Professional Education and Training

  

  Apart from academic programmes, overseas students can also apply for vocational and professional education and training (VPET) programmes in Hong Kong, which aims to lay a foundation for the students’ continued personal and professional development and to prepare them for employment and/or further education. If you want to well equip yourself before entering the workforce and enhance your employability, VPET would be a good choice for you.

  Member institutions of the Vocational Training Council provide VPET programmes up to the Bachelor’s degree level. Some of them also offer postgraduate programmes in collaboration with overseas institutions. In addition, there are various post-secondary institutions offering higher diploma programmes which seek to enable students to acquire the appropriate knowledge and skills to support their employment at the para-professional level.

  You may choose from a broad spectrum of programmes, covering a wide range of industries and catering for students with different backgrounds, interests and abilities, for example, design, creative media, business, engineering, information technology, hotel and tourism, Chinese Cuisine training, etc. We believe that there must be one that suits you the best.

  Most of the above institutions have also built up valuable partnership with various industry stakeholders. Not only will the industry partners offer views on course planning, curriculum design and quality assurance, they also provide sponsorship for scholarships as well as opportunities for industry attachment.

Vocational Education

  A History of Vocational Education Development in
China

  The earliest vocational education in China may
be traced back to the industrial education in the 1860’s
more than l30 years ago. The main content of vocational
education at that period (late Qing Dynasty) was to study
western technology and train manpower with practical skills.
The “Schooling System of 1902” laid down a set of
systematic regulations for vocational education, while the
“Chinese Vocational Education Society”, which was
established in l917, set the precedence of joint provision
of vocational education by the education sector and the
industrial sector in China. However, the slow economic
progress and backward industry hampered the development of
vocational education in China before 1949. At that time,
there were only 561 secondary technical schools with an
enrollment of 77,000 students and 3 schools for training
skill workers with an enrollment of 2700 students. The total
enrollment in secondary vocational schools represented only
4.2% of the total students population in secondary
schools.

  During the 50 years since the
founding of the People’s Republic of China in l949,
vocational education underwent a process of adjustment,
rectification, substantiation, reform, improvement and
steady development. In the 1950’s, to meet the needs of
economic expansion, thousands of specialized secondary
schools (SSSs) and skill worker schools were set up while in
the 1960’s the training of manpower badly needed in all
sectors of the society was accelerated and agricultural
secondary schools and other vocational schools developed
rapidly. However, the normal pace of development of Chinese
vocational education was seriously affected by the outbreak
of the culture revolution.

  Since China
entered a new historical era of reform and opening to the
outside world in 1978, Chinese vocational education has been
injected with tremendous vitality for development. In 1980,
formulated by the Ministry of Education (MoE) and the State
Bureau of Labor and ratified by the State Council, the
” Report on the Structural Reform of Secondary
Education” pointed out that the structure of secondary
education should be reformed and vocational education be
developed so as to enable the senior secondary schools to
meet the needs of socialistic modernization construction. In
1985,the CPC Central Committee promulgated the
“Decision on the Structural Reform of Education”,
clearly laying down that a vocational education system with
rational structure and different stages from junior level to
senior level which could match the industrial sectors and
link up with regular secondary education should be gradually
established. Then in l991, the State Council formulated the
“Decision on Energetically Developing Vocational and
Technical Education” identifying the tasks and
objectives for the further development of vocational
education in the light of economic and social development in
the 1990’s in China. The ” Outline on Reform and
Development of Education in China” drawn up by the CPC
Central Committee and the State Council in 1993 required
governments at various levels to attach great importance to
vocational education, make overall plans and energetical
develop vocational education. The outline aimed at
mobilizing the initiatives of all departments, enterprises,
institutions and all quarters of the society to provide
vocational education of multiple forms and various levels.
In 1996, the first “Vocational Education Law” in
China was formally promulgated and implemented, providing
legal protection for the development and perfection of
vocational education. A year after, in the “Report of
the 15th National Congress”, President Jiang Zeming
pointed out that the strategy of invigorating China through
science, technology and education and keeping sustainable
development should be implemented and vocational education
and adult education of various forms should be actively
developed. The “Decision on Deepening Educational
Reform and Promoting Quality Education ” the State
Council in 1999 emphasizes that an educational system
adapting to the socialistic market economy and the internal
law of education with different types of education linking
up to each other should be established, and that vocational
education should be energetically developed and senior
secondary education including regular and vocational
education should also be vigorously developed. All these
policies, regulations and laws have not only created an
unprecedentedly good social environment for the development
of vocational education, but also show the direction for the
reform and development of vocational education in the 21st
century.

  The System of Vocational
Education and Its Development  

  The system of
vocational education consists of education in vocational
schools and vocational
training.

  Vocational education in China
is provided at three levels: junior secondary, senior
secondary and tertiary.

  Conducted mainly
in junior vocational schools and aimed at training workers,
peasants and employees in other sectors with basic
professional knowledge and certain professional skills,
junior vocational education refers to the vocational and
technical education after primary school education and is a
part of the 9-year compulsory education. The students in
secondary vocational school should be primary school
graduates or the youth with equivalent cultural knowledge
and its schooling lasts 3 to 4 years. To meet the needs of
labor forces for the development of rural economy, junior
vocational schools are mainly located in rural areas where
the economy is less developed. At present, there are 1,472
such schools with the enrollment of 867,000
students.

  The secondary level mainly
refers to the vocational education in senior high school
stage. Composed of specialized secondary schools, skill
workers schools and vocational high schools, and as the
mainstay of vocational education in China, secondary
vocational education plays a guiding role in training
manpower with practical skills at primary and secondary
levels of various types.

  Consisting of
secondary technical schools and normal schoo1s, specialized
secondary schools enroll junior high school graduates with a
schooling of usually 4 years and sometimes 3 years, A few
specialities are open only to senior high school graduates
with the schooling lasting 2 years. The basic tasks of these
schools are to train secondary-level specialized and
technical talents for the forefront of production, and all
the students should master the basic knowledge, theory and
skills of their speciality in addition to the cultural
knowledge required for higher school
students.

  Aiming at training
secondary-level skill workers, skill worker schools enroll
junior high school graduates and their schooling lasts 3
years. Quite capable of practicing and operating, their
graduates will directly be engaged in production
activities.

  Developing on the basis of
the structural reform of secondary education after China
adopted the policy of reform and opening to the outside
world and directly coming from the reorganization of regular
high schools, vocational high school enrolls junior high
school graduates and its schooling lasts 3 years. Its main
task is to train secondary-1evel practice-oriented talents
with comprehensive professional abilities and all-round
qualities directly engaged in the forefront of production,
service, technology and management. Accordingly, the
specialities offered in vocational high schools are mainly
related to the third industry.

  In 1998,
there were altogether 17,090 secondary vocational schools
(including vocational high school, specialized secondary
schools and skill workers school), with the enrollment of
11,460,000 students and the recruitment of 422,900,000
students.

  With the schooling lasting 2
to 3 years, tertiary vocational education mainly enroll
graduates from regular high schools and secondary vocational
schools. In recent years, the proportion of graduates form
secondary vocational schools has been increased,
establishing the link between secondary and tertiary
vocational education gradually. Aiming at training secondary
and high – level specialized technical and management
talents needed in the economic construction, tertiary
vocational education emphasiz6s the training of
practice-oriented and craft-oriented talents. At present,
institutions providing tertiary vocational education are
divided into five categories. The first is the 30 higher
vocational technology colleges, with the enrollment of
149,000 students; the second is the 101 short-circle
practice-oriented vocational universities with local
figures; the third is the 5-year higher vocational classes
provided in the regular specialized secondary schools; the
fourth is the tertiary vocational education provided in some
regular higher education institutions and adult higher
education institutions, which has been experimented in over
130 specialites among 180 institutions; the last is the
reformed regular institutions offering 2 to 3-year higher
education with the emphasis on training practice-oriented
talents, namely high-level professional technical talents,
for the forefront of
production.

  Vocational training of
various forms has been playing a more and more important
role in vocational education. At present, vocational
training is mainly conducted and managed by the departments
of education and labor, but enterprises are encouraged to
provide vocational training for its own employees. In 1997,
there were 2, 800 employment training centers for the
administration of departments of labor with the capacity of
providing training for 3 million person-time per year and
20, 000 employee training centers with the capacity of 30
million person-time per year.

  The
Achievements of Vocational Education in China

  1. The
Rapid Expansion of the Scale of Vocational Education

  During the l5 years between 1980 and 1995, the
proportion of regular senior high school students among all
the students in senior secondary education has decreased
from 81% to 44%, while the proportion of secondary
vocational school students has increased from 19% to 56%.
From l980 to l997, secondary vocational education
institutions produced 30.85 million graduates, fostering
millions of secondary-level and primary-level technical
workers, managers, skill workers and other labors with good
vocational and technical education.

  2.
The Big Stride Made in the Construction of Vocational
Education Teachers

  Teachers for vocational education
are mostly graduates from regular higher education
institutions. Since 1989, over 160 HEIs have established
departments, specialities or classes devoted to the training
of vocational education teachers with the total enrollment
of 21,000 students. At the same time, the government began
the establishment of teacher training bases for vocational
education, Nowadays, there are 14 training bases set by
vocational technical colleges which are affiliated to HEIs
and over 200 bases set by central departments and local
governments. As a result, a training bases network has
basically taken shape, meeting the needs of teacher training
for vocational education of various forms and at various
levels.

  3. The Increase of the Quality
and Level of Vocational Education

  During the past 50
years, especially the 20 years after reform and opening to
the outside world, much attention has been paid to the
quality and level of vocation education as well as the
schooling efficiency. Meanwhile its scale has been
extraordinary expanded. By the end of 1998, more than 2000
key and pilot vocational schools have been established,
promoting the overall development of vocational
education.

  4. The Primary Fruits of the
Teaching Reform of Vocational Education

  Learning the
foreign modern vocational education thought and teaching
patterns to improve the level of teaching is an important
component of the reform of vocational education, For
example, the “dual-track system ” of Germany, the
educational and training pattern based on the ability in
Australia and Canada, the Employment Education Structure
(MES) advocated by the World Labor Organization, the ”
Skill Courses for Starting Small Enterprises” initiated
by the UNESCO and the ” Business and Trade Simulated
Company” springing up widely all over the world, all
became the models for the reform of Chinese vocational
education. At present, related to the industries like
mechanics, chemistry industry, electric power, architecture,
agriculture, railroad transportation, oil industry, public
health, business and light industry, hundreds of vocational
schools in Qingdao, Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, Wuhu, Shenyang
and Jingsha and a large number of enterprises are carrying
out the pilot reform of vocational education based on
foreign teaching patterns to improve the teaching level of
vocation education in China.

  5. Rapid
Development of Vocational Education in Rural
Areas

  Since the 1980’s, significant progress has been
made in vocational education in rural areas of China with
its quantity greatly enlarged and quality greatly Research
on Vocational Education With the development of vocational
education, research on vocational education has been
enhanced and a number of vocational education research
institutions have been established, organizing the full-time
and part-time research teams composed jointly by
administrative departments responsible for vocational
education, research institutions, vocational schools and
academic organizations, carrying out various forms of
vocational education research at different levels. Since the
1960’s, about 76 research topics have been included in the
state education research plans with some of the research
fruits playing an important role of reference for the
government to make vocational education
policies.

  International Cooperation and
Exchanges on Chinese Vocational Education

  Internationalization has become a common trend for
the reform and development of modern education in the world.
Along with the reform and opening to the outside world,
China has been actively engaged in the international
cooperation and exchanges in the field of vocational
education. During the past 20 years, the government has sent
many delegations to over 20 countries and districts where
vocational education is well-developed and shows their
unique characteristics to learn successful foreign
experience. At the same time, China has received many
foreign vocational education delegations, invited foreign
experts to give lectures in China, and jointly provided
education with foreign vocational education institutions to
promote the development of Chinese vocational education,
China has also made more and more contact with the UNESCO,
UNDP, world Labor Organization, UNPF, APEC and other
international organizations while the bilateral cooperation
and exchanges between China and other countries has been
increasingly expanded.

  In order to
improve the level of vocational education teachers, since
1987 China has sent thousands of administrators and teachers
who teach specialized courses to America, the United
Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Australia, Canada and Japan for
study, which has received good
results.

  In 1990, the Chinese government
signed the “Agreement on the Loan for Vocational
Education Project in China” with World Bank and began
to develop our vocational education with the loan from World
Bank. At present, the first session projects have been
finished while the second session have begun. The two
session projects altogether will use $ 80 million from World
Bank and $ 100 million from the Chinese government. The
implementation of the whole project has significantly
strengthened the construction of teacher training bases for
vocational education and the teaching and speciality
construction in vocational schools. In 1990, German
government agreed to provide the fund to establish the
Central Vocational Education Research Institute and two
local research institutes in Shanghai and Liaoning. Since
early 1980’s, China and German have jointly set up over 30
cooperative projects in the field of vocational education
and carried out the pilot reform which drew experience form
the German “Dual-track System” with wide and deep
cooperation and research on educational thought, schooling
system and teaching patterns.

  In
Addition, cooperating with Canada and Australia, China
imported their educational and training models based on
ability to reform the traditional teaching patterns. The
Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare cooperated with the
World Labor Organization to carry out the pilot work in
skill worker schools and in-service
training.

  From 13 Sept. to 18 Sept.
1993, China undertook the International Seminar of
Vocational and Technical Education organized by the UNESCO.
In April 1997, the International Seminar on Rural Vocational
Education was held in China and representatives from foreign
countries, World Bank and World Labor Organization discussed
and summarized the international development of vocational
education, providing valuable experience for developing
vocational education in China.

fake credit card and name vocational school

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